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By Steinke G. F.

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Williams 1998, 15), because their moral standing is questionable, or because they do not conform to “middle-class or dominant constructions of moral, normative, patriarchal citizenship” (C. Cohen 1999, 13–14). , a minority), though—as illustrated by the examples of billionaires, who are a minority of all Americans, and by women, who constitute a majority of the population—minority status on its own is not necessary or sufficient to qualify a group as marginalized. In addition, membership in marginalized groups helps structure patterns of social and political inequality, and membership in these groups is not usually experienced as voluntary or mutable (M.

Others counter that the Democrats are too willing to sacrifice these latter constituencies in pursuit of swing voters who support Democratic economic positions but who have conservative views when it comes to policy issues such as abortion, affirmative action, and LGBT rights (Frymer 1999). the iron law of oligarchy A third constellation of reservations about the extent to which advocacy organizations represent disadvantaged subgroups overlaps with these first two and stems from what some scholars claim are the conservatizing effects of formal, professionalized, and institutionalized organizations on the participatory, democratic, and radical social movements out of which they grow (Gamson and Schmeidler 1984; Michels 1911; Piven and Cloward 1977; Staggenborg 1988; Valocchi 1990, 1993).

6 According to both Michels and Piven and Cloward, then, the clear consequence of the proliferation of advocacy organizations is decreased movement efficacy and an abandonment of issues affecting disadvantaged groups. 20 · chapter two socioeconomic biases in political participation Levels of advocacy on behalf of disadvantaged subgroups are also likely to be low because of the socioeconomic biases associated with political and organizational activity in the United States. Sidney Verba, Kay Lehman Scholzman, and Henry Brady, for example, find much lower levels of organizational membership among women, African Americans, Latinos, and people with lower levels of income and education (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady 1995).

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4-Dimensional Elation Laguerre Planes Admitting Non-Solvable Automorphism Groups by Steinke G. F.

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