By John G. Webster (Editor)
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Extra info for 52.Reliability
An empirical model derived from Pb–Sn film depletion data obtained at different temperatures and current densities for a number of Pb–Sn alloys was developed by Di Giacomo (44): tf = H C exp (J − JTH ) KT (57) DESIGN FOR MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY Total depletion area, (µ m2 × 104) Temperature, 25 125°C Thermomigration 150°C Thermomigration is a forced-diffusion mechanism analogous to electromigration except that the driving force is a thermal gradient ٌT rather than a potential gradient ٌV. The mechanism affects mainly solder joints which are susceptible to it when the thermal gradient is Ն105 ЊC/cm at temperatures Ն the melting temperature.
From a mechanistic aspect, the process of failure involves crack nucleation and propagation, which are inherently statistical in nature. Through the years electron transmission microscopy has shown complex three dimensional dislocation tangles which develop during cyclic stressing. It appears that cracks form and grow in each cycle by being fed dislocations that move in from the surrounding lattice. Thus, the intersection of moving dislocations is a principal cause of the formation of vacancies and fatigue damage.
For alloys, such as Pb–Sn solders and Al–Cu lands, there are always concentration gradients, precipitates, and intermetallics which promote galvanic corrosion. When an external electrical bias is applied, the corrosion rate is enhanced to an extent which depends on both the intensity of the local potentials and the applied voltage itself. The corrosion rate is normalized to the galvanic corrosion rate, so that when the applied voltage is zero, the model reverts to the galvanic component. 3143 J/mol и K (40) 200 DESIGN FOR MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY and process residues.
52.Reliability by John G. Webster (Editor)