Read e-book online A Grammar of Basque PDF

By José Ignacio Hualde, Jon Ortiz de Urbina

ISBN-10: 3110176831

ISBN-13: 9783110176834

Because the purely surviving pre-Indo-European language of western Europe, Basque has frequently attracted the curiosity of linguists. while, often, descriptive paintings on Basque has essentially all in favour of morphological good points, together with its advanced procedure of verb-argument contract and its strict ergative development of inflection, over the past twenty years a brand new iteration of Basque linguists has produced very subtle, theoretically-informed paintings on many facets of the syntax, morphology and phonology of the language, revealing, for example, a technique of focalization with many attention-grabbing homes and the life in a few dialects of an accentual process strikingly just like that of normal jap. The publication, bringing jointly this amassed wisdom at the constitution of Basque, is significantly extra entire than the other current grammar of the language. one other attention-grabbing characteristic of this grammar is that the outline is illustrated with fully-glossed examples extracted from a lot of written resources. even if the focal point is the fashionable general language, dialectal gains are thought of intimately and examples are taken from all dialects and classes.

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1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 2. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 4. 1. 1. 2. 2. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Text 5 Sources of examples References Index 851 851 856 859 860 868 872 872 872 874 881 887 893 893 897 903 906 912 915 922 935 Chapter 1 Introduction J. I. 1. The Basque language and its name The word 'Basque' derives, through French, from the name of the Vascones, a nation or tribe that in Roman times occupied an area of the Iberian Peninsula including most of present-day Navarre and neighboring parts of Aragon. Whereas, on the one hand, possibly not all Vascones were Basquespeaking (both non-Indo-European Iberian and Indo-European Celtiberian appear to have been used in parts of their territory) and, on the other hand, Pre-Basque and related languages seem to have been also spoken by some other neighboring nations (at least the Aquitanians in Gaul, see Gorrochategui 1995), in medieval times the name Vascones became identified with the speakers of the direct ancestor of the language we know as Basque.

G. g. afari ~ apari 'dinner', alfer ~ alper 'lazy'). In these areas the pronunciation of til as [p] is a dying phenomenon found in the speech of older speakers. Iii does not occur in the coda of the syllable. 26 Phonology /χ/. All or nearly all dialects spoken in Spanish territory have a voiceless velar (or postvelar) fricative phoneme /x/ and none of the dialects spoken in France does. But, among the dialects where it occurs, the incidence of this phoneme is very different. 6). 5. Voiced fricatives Voiced fricatives only occur in some dialects: /]/.

Phoneme inventory and orthography Basque dialects vary somewhat in their sound inventory. A common phonemic inventory, found in most Gipuzkoan and High Navarrese areas and used by, perhaps, most speakers of Standard Basque, is described in table 1. Table 1. Phonemic inventory (Gipuzkoan and High Navarrese and standard Basque) laminal postdorsal labial apical predorsal Consonants c k t stop Ρ d b J 9 X s fricative f J § ts affricate t§ tj m nasal η Ji lateral 1 X Γ tap Γ trill Vowels i e a u ο Among the labial consonants, /p/, fbl, Iml are bilabial and Iii is generally labiodental (although bilabial realizations have been reported).

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A Grammar of Basque by José Ignacio Hualde, Jon Ortiz de Urbina

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