By Jiang Li
In A Grammar of Guiqiong, Jiang Li describes the grammar of Guiqiong, a hitherto undocumented language spoken by means of alpine humans in Kangding county, China. Guiqiong has much to supply in its phonology, verbal and nominal morphology, syntax and word list, distinguishing itself from the neighbouring Tibetan, chinese language, Qiangic and Loloish languages. The newly came across gains of Guiqiong contain breathy vs. modal voice, indefinite quantity, ablative, ergative, instrumental, dative and genitive case markers, subject and emphatic markers, the diminutive suffixes, the pronominal and deictic structures, demonstratives and numerals, a wealthy shop of differentiated copular verbs expressing equationality, inchoative, animacy vs. inanimacy, established lifestyles and negation, verbal affixes indicating instructions, current demanding of skilled perceptions, gnomic annoying, perfective vs. imperfective point, modality and evidentiality.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Guìqióng: A Language of Sichuan
Some of these rimes comprising of nasal codas can then occur after the three medial glide vowels, the front closed unrounded [i], the front closed rounded [y] and the back closed rounded [u] to either form an independent syllable or to further occur in syllables comprising of an affricate or middle nasal initial. g. mintɔ ‘flower’, ʨhiuŋ ‘strike into pieces with pestle’, ɕiɐn’luŋ ‘pomegranate’, ʨhiɐŋ ‘dance; sharp’, guɐndʐuɐŋ ‘persimmon’, dzisɐn ‘oerst’ and nyɐŋtʂi ‘the Dàdù River’. Guìqióng has a host of rising diphthongs which are distinguished from each other and also from rimes comprising of other types of vowels.
The breathy voiced /ʐ’/ is followed by the low falling tone. g. tʂi ‘water’, tʂhi ‘very’, dʐi ‘millstone’, and dʐ’i ‘ash’. The unvoiced retroflex affricate initials /tʂ/ and /tʂh/ are followed by the high level tone in modal voice. The voiced initial /dʐ/ is followed by the medial level tone in modal voice. The low falling tone follows the breathy voiced initial /dʐ’/. g. tɐ ‘tiger’, thɐ ‘the prohibitive marker’, dɐ ‘big’ and d’ɐχin ‘distant’. The unvoiced and unaspirated alveolar /t/ is followed by the high level tone in modal voice.
G. ɬə ‘god’, lə ‘the subjective suffix’, thə’lə ‘thin maize pancake’, tə ‘shine’ and thə ‘the prohibitive prefix’. The alveolar lateral fricative /ɬ/ is followed by the high level tone in modal voice. g. tsɐŋ ‘lunch’, tshɐŋ ‘body hair’, dzɐŋ ‘sour’ and dz’ɐŋ ‘rain’. The unvoiced and unaspirated alveolar affricate /ts/ is followed by the high level tone in modal voice. tsɐŋ lunch; clean tsɛi son tsɐn learn, teach ʑiɛtsɛi morning gotsɛi foodstuff ʥ’iɐtsɛi drinks tsĩʥ’iɐ tea and drinks χɐŋtsɛi younger sister tsuŋ rust tsi hear The unvoiced and aspirated alveolar affricate /tsh/ is also followed by the high tone in the modal voice.
A Grammar of Guìqióng: A Language of Sichuan by Jiang Li