By Russell G. Schuh
A Grammar of Miya describes a language of the Chadic kin spoken in Northern Nigeria. this is often the 1st documentation of Miya apart from observe lists. The grammar describes all points of the language. Of specific typological curiosity are the tone process, a "terraced point" method within which tone operates over multi-syllabic domain names, and be aware order, that is VXS in lots of contexts.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Miya (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
For simplicity of exposition, I use only various types of noun phrases. As noted at the beginning of §3, the basic tone rules apply within any tonal phrase, regardless of morphology or syntax. See §6 for discussion of tonal phrases and non-phrases and illustrations of the tone rules applied in contexts other than noun phrases. The first sets of examples involve monotonal words. These are followed by a few examples of multi-tonal words. REGISTER lDWERlNG Phrase initial Toneless domain (tdbn and ndkan are feminine and masculine demonstratives respectively) TONE SPREAD Lexical H * TONE SPREAD lNIT1ALH lDWERlNG lDWRAISING DEFAULTHlGH ASSIGNMENT '" H I'-...
Wor s, One caveat to the tone association pattern described here can be stated as follows: e~n. e. the syllable IS pronounced on a single tone. Miya has no I *kiibns" [ contour • 1 *tones 'b ':b TONE LEVELNG thus prevents pronunciations such as _, - or a ,r ,r [- '. 1 whi h ld h ' . 9 -, C wou ot erwlse be predicted by the associatl'on patt . b .. ern gIven a ove. 8Verbs of the "H H" an d "H L" classes comprise two furth 1 I . H-X tone patterns (4'§§12 3 2 3) H H b I e r arge c asses of words descnbed as having • .
Sgbg vaatlg Lexical H I * L I r--....... L I S;}ll HL I I L L L wuna baday words wuti! 'one' and dKanoo 'Kano'2o have an underlying Toneless-L pattern, giving citation pronunciation [- _1 and [- - _1 respectively because of DEFAULT HIGH applying to the initial Toneless domain. However, when such words follow a L domain, the initial Toneless domain is associated with the L, creating the environment for LOW RAISING to apply to the internal L of the words. The surface result is a reversed tone pattern from that of the citation form.
A Grammar of Miya (University of California Publications in Linguistics) by Russell G. Schuh