By Katharina Haude
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Additional resources for A grammar of Movima
There are no ideophones. The fine-grained system of reference and deixis, expressed by referential elements (articles, pronouns, demonstratives) is highly complicated, something which is not uncommon for Amazonian languages. Gender, number, presence, absence, visibility, position, and motion form the main parameters of deictic reference. The system also marks temporal categories on nominal constituents, differentiating between actual or future existence and ceased existence of the referent. Compounding and incorporation occur frequently.
Further evidence of this is that other initial consonants are not omitted when the prefix /n/ is attached: here, an epenthetic vowel is inserted (cf. 6). In (137) and (138), this contrast is illustrated for the plural article. Example (137) shows the unmarked and the oblique-marked presential article: while the unmarked, vowel-initial form is automatically preceded by the glottal stop, the glottal stop is dropped when the oblique prefix /n/ is attached. When, in contrast, the absential article /kis/ in (138), which is consonant-initial, is marked as oblique, the /k/ is retained, and an epenthetic vowel is inserted to avoid a complex onset.
It seems that Movima displays syntactic ergativity, most clearly in relative clauses. As mentioned above, only the transitive argument higher on the animacy hierarchy is obligatorily encoded. Strikingly, there is no obligatory marker for the first person singular, so that this person is implicit on a bivalent predicate unmarked for person. ). It has to do with the fact that, while all persons, except the first, are encoded by enclitics, first and second person are (also) encoded by optional bound pronouns preceding the predicate.
A grammar of Movima by Katharina Haude