By Claude Hagége
This pioneering learn relies on an research of over two hundred languages, together with African, Amerindian, Australian, Austronesian, Indo-European and Eurasian (Altaic, Caucasian, Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Dravidian, Uralic), Papuan, and Sino-Tibetan. Adpositions are a nearly common a part of speech. English has prepositions; a few languages, reminiscent of eastern, have postpositions; others have either; and but others types that aren't relatively both. As grammatical instruments they mark the connection among elements of a sentence: ordinarily one point governs a noun or noun-like be aware or word whereas the opposite capabilities as a predicate. From the syntactic viewpoint, the supplement of an adposition is dependent upon a head: during this final sentence, for instance, a head is the supplement of on whereas on a head is determined by relies and on is the marker of this dependency. Adpositions lie on the middle of the grammar of such a lot languages, their usefulness making them recurrent in daily speech and writing. Claude Hagege examines their morphological positive aspects, syntactic services, and semantic and cognitive houses. He does so for the subsets either one of adpositions that specific the family of agent, sufferer, and beneficiary, and of these which mark house, time, accompaniment, or device. Adpositions frequently govern case and are often progressively grammaticalized into case. the writer considers the entire set of functionality markers, together with case, that seem as adpositions and, in doing so, throws gentle on tactics of morphological and syntactic swap in numerous languages and language households. His booklet could be welcomed by means of typologists and by means of syntacticians and morphologists of all theoretical stripes.
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Extra info for Adpositions
Ji-pën-n iSG-ABL-NZR 'one from me' b. j-eira-to 1SG-IRAS-NZR 'one who is angry at me' Unlike the nominalizer -n, which is used after other Tiriyô Adp-phrases, the nominalizer -to is used after Adp-phrases containing mental state Pos (cf. O. A sixth morphological difference between Adps and case affixes is that Adps can be combined with various morphemes, such as diminutives (cf. 4) or negations (cf. 7). Similar combinations might exist in case affixes, but I know of no example so far. One last, very simple, morphological difference between case-markers in general and Adps concerns their respective sizes.
Expresses only case; ii. is optional, the bare stem also being allowed to appear on its own; iii. does not bring about, given its transparent association with the stem, many boundary accidents, although, there may be, even in typically agglutinative languages, some consonant or vowel alternations, as is shown by Hungarian, Turkish, or Estonian: in Estonian, for example (cf. Hagège 1990*3: 302), we find such pairs as: (26) (Finnic, Finno-Ugric, Uralic, Estonia) tigu (nominative singular) teo (genitive singular) 'snail' viga (nominative singular) vea (genitive singular) 'error' rege (partitive singular ree (genitive singular) 'sledge'.
Thus associated in one and the same complex unit, the Adp and the case affix govern together a noun-like element. In many languages, the Adp of a Complex Adp is itself linked to the governed term by a connective element, that is either a genitive case or another Adp (cf. 5). 3). 4). 1 Case heaping I propose to call case heaping a phenomenon involving adnominal complements marked by a succession of two or more contiguous case markers or case marker-like elements. Case heaping can be even more complex when further cases are added.
Adpositions by Claude Hagége