By Elez Biberaj
In early 1997, Albania’s transition to democracy suffered a significant setback while pyramid schemes sparked violent unrest, plunging the rustic into its worst political and monetary problem because the downfall of communism. The uprisings and next elections, within which the Socialist get together gained a landslide victory, have made front-page information within the overseas group. And Albania’s proximity to the Yugoslavian melee and heritage of utmost radical communism make it a kingdom to watch.In Albania in Transition, Elez Biberaj offers a finished political profile of Albania on account that 1989. He charts Albania’s transition from one social gathering to many, from a command financial system to a marketplace financial system, and its transition to a countrywide protection nation in an unpredictable, post–Cold conflict overseas defense regime.
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Additional resources for Albania In Transition: The Rocky Road To Democracy (Nations of the Modern World Ser)
Notes, this trend holds equally true for other traditional protecting forces, such as Sweden, and it is not necessarily to be regretted, since it indicates a certain normalization of relations among former enemies. Switzerland has also actively contributed to this trend by not accepting a number of proposed mandates. Similar trends can be observed with regard to international arbitration efforts, once a flagship of Switzerland’s ‘good offices’. 6 6 Such as the United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG) along with the specialized organizations within the UN system (World Health Organization, International Labor Organization, International Telecommunication Union, World Intellectual Property Organization, World Meteorological Organization).
Neutrality law also imposes two basic types of obligations upon neutral states (Interdepartmental Working Group 2000: 12). First, neutral states have the duty not to intervene militarily in a conflict (prohibition of direct military assistance), and second, they must not provide support for the military operations of the parties to such a conflict (prohibition of indirect military assistance). The obligation to respect the prohibition of direct military assistance is at the core of neutrality law.
A number of observers of Swiss politics pointed out that a new salient cleavage emerged during the 1990s which pits those favouring a more open foreign policy against those who prefer to hold on to Switzerland’s traditions (Moser 1996; Wernli et al. 1994; Kriesi et al. 1993; Kriesi 1998a; Brunner and Sciarini 2002; Hug and Trechsel 2002; Christin et al. 2002). In popular votes on foreign policy issues, among others, the ‘openness–tradition’ cleavage is important, although this cleavage 7 UN membership in 1986, EEA Treaty in 1992, Blue Helmets in 1994.
Albania In Transition: The Rocky Road To Democracy (Nations of the Modern World Ser) by Elez Biberaj